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What are the key concepts of psychodynamic counselling

What Techniques Are Used in Psychodynamic Therapy?

At the core of psychodynamic therapy is making the unconscious become conscious. This process is encouraged in a client through a variety of tools and techniques that the therapist uses depending on the client’s specific needs.

Free Association

Psychodynamic therapy often involves free association. This is when the patient is encouraged to discuss whatever is on their mind, including the events of the week, past conflicts with others, fears and desires, dreams and nightmares, or anything they want to disclose about themselves and their experiences.2 Psychodynamic therapy involves listening to the different levels of expressed communication, both from the person’s conscious and from their unconscious that, in a sense, is trying to get out.

Content vs. Process

Understanding patient communication at various levels is sometimes described as content versus process. The content is what the patient is communicating at the conscious level and is mostly limited to what is understood by the patient. The process of communicating is how the information is presented, which may provide certain clues to the unconscious and represents what the person is trying to communicate outside of immediate awareness. The psychodynamic therapist listens to content, but also observes non-verbal cues, certain errors in speech, how topics can change suddenly, and anything that may contradict or emotionally charge the content that is being expressed. That is an important part of the therapy process.

An example of this is a patient who says early in therapy, “My boss is always looking over my shoulder at work. I’m not the kind of person who needs to be treated like a child.” In turn the therapist may say, “Your relationship with your boss is obviously frustrating for you. I understand it’s important for us to address that problem. But I also believe you’re letting me know something about the way you want to be treated in therapy. I want to make sure you’re always treated with the respect of a capable adult.”

In the first part of the statement, the therapist addresses the conscious content of the patient’s difficulty with the boss. The second part intends to address what is likely a part of the unconscious process—how it is important for the patient to feel the same about the therapist or the therapy process. These references to what the patient is presenting at different communication levels help promote insight and trust in the therapeutic alliance.


In addition to observing the nuances of communication, psychodynamic therapists understand that patients often unconsciously place feelings, desires, fears, and resentments they may have for real people in their life history onto the therapist. This phenomenon is known as transference because people transfer their feelings from the original person onto the therapist as an object of those feelings. Patients do not always recognize transference when it occurs, but when it does happen, the psychodynamic therapist can make the connection, thus helping the patient locate the actual source of those emotions. They often involve people that represent unresolved conflicts in that person’s life, and even reveal misplaced guilt or shame they experienced in these relationships.


Conversely, therapists may have unconscious feelings toward their patients at any given time in therapy because therapists are human, too. Psychodynamic therapy recognizes this important phenomenon as countertransference. Therapists are trained to understand their own issues to reduce the undue influence of those issues in therapy. As a result, countertransference can be used as a tool for the therapist to better understand the patient’s experience and have a more prepared approach as those issues arise.

Clarification & Interpretation

While the psychodynamic therapist observes and assesses both the content and process of communication from the patient, the therapist responds in either two essential ways: clarification or interpretation. The therapist clarifies through feedback and elucidating questions for both patient and therapist to better understand what is being discussed at the conscious level. Interpretation is the therapist’s direct response to something emerging from the unconscious that reveals repressed emotions and memories that influences conscious life.

Here’s an example of how a psychodynamic therapist may interpret transference in a patient who suffered the trauma of parental abandonment. If previous discussion included that the patient has a history of undermining relationships through anger and emotional withdrawal, the therapist would understand this to manifest in the therapy at some point.

The therapist has worked to clarify the patient’s anger in relationships outside of therapy, but as trust builds through the therapeutic alliance, the patient becomes increasingly afraid of getting emotionally injured by the therapist. In response, the patient starts to transfer anger and emotional withdrawal towards the therapist. When it appears to be the appropriate moment, the therapist can say something like, “I believe you’re worried I will abandon you, just as your father did to you.”


When interpretations are accurate, patients will typically react with a noticeable shift in behavior. These actions can include increased emotional expression (e.g., tears, laughter, anger, blushing, etc.), sudden silence, or the immediate articulation of a recent or distant memory. These behaviors often point to the release of a repressed emotion, known as catharsis.3

In catharsis, the patient may also experience some relief of anxiety, anger, or shame, along with an increase in trust. But the experience may also intensify the challenges of going deeper into the person’s unconscious and essentially further into the conflicts of early life as unresolved issues are exposed. This can become especially difficult when ego defenses are reduced, and the therapy patient is faced with the reality of painful life losses towards grief and acceptance. But the increased level of trust in the therapeutic alliance helps carry the process along with greater confidence.


Ultimately, the psychodynamic process can reveal these unresolved conflicts and provide an emotionally safe place to resolve them, sometimes referred to as working-through. When patients in psychodynamic therapy become acquainted with their compulsions to repeat dysfunctional patterns and early-life roles, they can take control of their own choices and behaviors.

Psychodynamic Therapy for Relationships

Psychodynamic theory can also be applied to therapies that involve more than one participant. In relationship therapy with two individuals, conflicts from earlier in their respective life histories are important in understanding how each responds to emotional and communication needs.

Relationships with parents, siblings, and others in childhood, along with how parents had interacted with each other, become points of reference for how people relate to each other in their adult relationships. Because unconscious fears and desires are not limited to childhood issues, prior adult relationships, trauma and loss, and other significant life events can also have a significant influence on present conflicts.

The psychodynamic relationship therapist helps the couple clarify past issues and how they impact the current communication and emotional dysfunctions that impair mutual understanding and conflict resolution. With a deeper awareness of fears, desires, and expectations shared in relationship therapy, a couple can better develop techniques for respectful and effective interactions to meet the needs of the couple’s life together.

Psychodynamic Theory in Family Therapy

Similarly, family therapy seeks to uncover deeper and often unspoken conflicts and issues within the family system. This is often where perceived and assigned roles are explored and challenged to develop healthier and more productive interactions. The overarching goal is to achieve a functional balance in the family system that can tolerate open communication and changes to the family dynamics as the family evolves over time.

Even in dysfunctional family systems, there is a sense of balance among family members, but this type of balance is often precarious and reliant on unspoken fears and needs. These are often referred to as taboos.

An example of this involves a family member, such as the scapegoated child, who acts out in some obviously unhealthy or even dangerous way, while one of the parents harbors a serious substance abuse problem. In psychodynamics, the child may be referred to as the identified patient and would require treatment for any apparent mental health condition. At the same time, the child’s improvement in treatment changes the dynamics of the family, and thus, creates an imbalance in the family system. As a result, more attention is given to notice the parent’s substance problem, which has been previously taboo, but now can be appropriately identified and treated.

 Child & Adolescent Therapy

The psychodynamic model can be useful for children in helping to identify emotions and experiences that are repressed or unexpressed, while assisting in their personal development. Significant emotional conflicts, such as those resulting from trauma and losses, can impede psychological growth and reduce the child’s ability to form adaptive coping methods and healthy emotional release. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on creating safe places for young people to find healthy emotional expression towards relieving psychological distress, promoting psychological development, and establishing healthy self-esteem.


For adolescents, psychodynamic therapy emphases the essential need for the young patient to trust the therapist. Although the young person’s ego is not fully formed, many of the same techniques, including interpretation through observing content versus process can be useful in improving trust.

Therapy can assist the patient in the common conflicts of teenage life, including self-image, social and sexual development, and fears involving future life goals. Understanding family dynamics is also an important aspect for adolescent psychodynamic therapy. But adolescents are also influenced by peer relationships and expectations within the group. Therapy helps the young person to sort out these complex relationships towards identifying their own sense of values and self-identity. This development process is known as individuation.

Young Children

Sometimes young children are not thought of as having a rich mental life, but in fact, they can experience feelings that lead to behaviors revealing deeper, underlying problems.4 Psychodynamic therapy for young children often involves different techniques to help promote emotional expression and working-through. Since children have not developed adequate verbal tools, therapists may use play therapy or art therapy, or other kinds of creative expression.

One example involves the therapist encouraging the child to draw pictures of themselves individually or themselves with their families. The therapist observes this process, along with how the picture is organized and how the characters are portrayed in the picture to form a therapeutic discussion with the child, which in turn helps the child develop an emotional connection with whatever conflicts they may be experiencing.

Final Thoughts on Psychodynamic Therapy

There are many specific aspects of psychodynamic theory and its application in therapy that have been developed and refined for more than 100 years. But at its most basic core, the main purpose of psychodynamic therapy is to make the unconscious become conscious for better relationships with self and others.